3-Phase Translation Process



Due to our twenty-year experience in academic translation, we know how difficult, challenging and costly it is to get articles accepted in peer-reviewed journals and that it requires a great deal of effort. With more than ten thousand translation projects, we have gained experience about the expectations of editors and journal reviewers, what they criticize, the approaches they adopt when accepting or rejecting an article and what approach we should take towards the criticism of a reviewer. To meet expectations of high-quality translation, we perform a 3-phase process with translation, editing and proofreading.



Who are our translators?

Our translators hold graduate and postgraduate degrees from leading universities in Turkey and abroad. In addition to the academic competence they possess in their fields and related content and terminology knowledge, their postgraduate education has equipped them with comprehensive knowledge of the performance of academic studies. Our translators are aware of the knowledge, experience and attention to detail required for the translation of articles to be published in Class A peer-reviewed journals. Each of our translators has approximately 10 years’ experience in performing academic translations.

Our academic translation team includes doctors, dentists, health staff, pharmacists, biologists, chemists, genetic experts, engineers from all fields, architects, lawyers, educators, archaeologists, sociologists, psychologists, historians, former diplomats, economists, and communications and finance and banking experts, who are working at various universities.


Which academic fields do we translate?


  • Social sciences communication, public relations, journalism, tourism, archeology, philosophy, anthropology, psychology, sociology, geography, history, Turkish language and literature

  • Physical sciences mathematics, physics, biology, molecular biology and genetics, statistics, aquaculture

  • Educational sciences Computer education and instructional technology (CEIT), educational administration, psychological counseling and guidance (PCG), preschool education, primary school education, secondary school, special education, Turkish education, physical education

  • Economics and administrative sciences economics, business administration, public finance, international relations, public administration, family and consumer sciences, labor economics, social services, international trade

  • Law constitutional law, penal code, general public law, administrative law, international law, fiscal law, labor and social security law, civil code

  • Fine arts graphic design, painting, sculpture, ceramics, photography and video, hand crafts

  • Engineering computer, environmental, electrical and electronics, industrial, food, civil, geological, chemical, mining, mechanical, forest, metallurgical and materials, textile, aerospace

  • Architecture architecture, interior architecture, urban planning, industrial design

  • Health sciences nursing, midwifery, nutrition and dietetics, pediatric development, physiotherapy, ergotherapy, audiology

  • Medicine basic medical sciences, internal medicine, surgical medical sciences

  • Dentistry dental and maxillofacial surgery, endodontics, oral implantology, orthodontics, pedodontics, periodontology, prosthetic dentistry

  • Pharmacy analytical chemistry, biochemistry, parmacognosy, pharmacology, pharmaceutical botany, toxicology

  • Veterinary histology and embryology, physiology, biochemistry, microbiology, parasitology, pathology, virology, internal diseases, gynecology and obstetrics, food hygiene and technology


01. Translation

The first phase is the translation of texts into the target language. The translators have received at least a postgraduate education in the relevant field of the text to be translated, and have a high level of linguistic competence and translation experience. In addition to the academic competence they possess in their fields and related knowledge of content and terminology, they have comprehensive understanding of the performance of academic studies. In academic translation, high-level language competence is useless without knowledge of the relevant academic field and its terminology. To avoid semantic shifts, our translators complete the translation phase by remaining faithful to the source text. If the translator encounters difficulties in the text, our project manager serves as a bridge between the translator and the author to enable these matters to be clarified and ensure that the author’s meaning is reflected accurately in the translation.



02. Editing

The second phase includes detailed editing performed by American, English, Canadian or Australian native-speaker editors of translated texts, in compliance with the journal in which the article will be published and at the request of clients. The editor who revises the text is selected from experts in the relevant field. Our editors have bachelors or doctoral degrees awarded by the world’s top universities. They have 16 years’ experience on average. Even though the translators are experienced in their own fields and have a very good command of English, their native languages are not English and there may be linguistic mistakes or unintentional errors. Our editing service includes stages such as the checking of sentence structures, checking the accurate use of terminology, the correction of spelling and grammar errors, checking punctuation marks and controlling points that are culturally sensitive. Our editors also correct for fluency of the text in sentence and paragraph transition, as possible fluency problems in the source text may affect the target text. Our editors raise issues such as the presentation of text, its plan, the use of references, fluency problems, missing points, unnecessary repetition, or missing elements or errors in tables and figures, to bring them to the attention of clients and make suggestions to improve the text.

We guarantee that any texts that receive criticism relating to language problems will be re-edited free of charge. After completing the translation and editing, we perform any revisions that may be required, taking into account client feedback and suggestions.



03. Proofreading

The third phase includes the process of proofreading. Here the revisions made by the editor are checked by the translator who was responsible for the translation of the text, and the translation is made ready for delivery. Editors can make mistakes too. As the editors are revising the English target text, not the original source text, semantic shifts can occur in the revised sentences. In the proofreading phase, our translators check for these semantic shifts and linguistic/spelling errors. Moreover, they check the text against terminology databases, style guidelines and check lists. After these three phases are successfully completed, we send two files to the client. One of these files includes the revisions made by the editor and its name ends with “EDITING” while the second one is the file created at the end of the third phase, and its name ends with “FINAL”.


What features affect the quality of translations?


  • To avoid any mistakes during the project, we communicate with the author of the text when needed.

  • We integrate term databases that we have prepared for each academic field through SDL Trados MultiTerm software. With this software, our translation projects feature error-free consistency in the use of accepted terminology. Additionally, we are able to upload any translations of terms preferred by our clients.

  • Besides the critical importance of finding equivalent terms in the target language, the recognition and common usage of these terms by academics in the relevant literature is also crucial. To that end, instead of using words that are not found in the literature, we search for similar studies online and from there, consider how these terms are used.

  • If new concepts and terms do not have any equivalents in the target language, or there is doubt about the use of the best equivalent for them, we discuss such matters with full-time and freelance translators working for Kalite Akademik Tercume on our forum.

  • Some terms may have more than one equivalent in the literature. Preferences can vary by authors, the journal in which the text will be published, reviewers and the dialects of English language preferred by journals. Therefore, to avoid errors and waste of time and effort, it greatly facilitates the translation process and improves the quality of the finished translation if the author includes the terms required to be used in the translation.

  • When an original text includes sentence fragments or unclear and ambiguous sentences, we always contact the author of the text to resolve the matter and ensure that the text in question reflects the intended meaning. We are committed to staying true to the original text.

  • When long sentences in Turkish are directly translated into English, fluency is often difficult to achieve due to the different syntaxes that characterize the two languages. In such cases, we translate long sentences by dividing them into parts, relying on communication with the author to bring greater fluency to the sentence without corrupting the meaning.

  • The deadline for completing translations is a crucial factor that affects the quality. Optimum time should be given to translators and editors so that they do not rush and have time to research terms or other matters in doubt.


The Use of Terminology

Using accurate terms is very important in academic translations. To that end, we have prepared glossaries for each academic field that we use for our translations via MultiTerm software.

If there are English equivalents of the words and terms included in the article that our clients particularly want us to use in the translation, we request authors to include them before we begin to translate the original text. If the terms used in the article need to be revised after the delivery of the translation, we also make these revisions.

multiterm program görüntüsü

As can be seen from the picture above, MultiTerm software detects the terms in the glossaries added to the system and highlights them with red color in the relevant sentence on the panel. Our translators remain true to this for the use of terms and to ensure internal consistency in the article.

We continuously update our glossaries by adding the terms preferred by our clients. Our team that performs glossary updates also prepares glossaries in new fields. We use specialized glossaries for each project based on the preferences of our clients.


What are the benefits of 3-phase translation phase?


Increase in efficiency

The field and terminology knowledge and the high level of language competence of translators may still not be enough for articles to be accepted by peer-reviewed journals. After all, translators can make mistakes. Moreover, translators are responsible for remaining true to the source text. This responsibility can cause issues such as a decrease in fluency and poor readability because of the different syntax and semantic structures of English and Turkish. The revisions made by our native-English editors correct linguistic errors and resolve fluency problems, and improve the academic quality of the text, increasing its acceptability. This reduces the probability that an article will be rejected on linguistic grounds alone.

Saving on time

Editing also saves time. The process that includes preparing an article, translation, meeting the revision requests of the journal editor, the retranslation of revisions and additions made to the article regarding the comments of reviewers, the assessments conducted by the reviewer committee and its publication lasts for months, sometimes more than a year. When an article is not accepted by the journal reviewers because of linguistic matters, this process must begin again. It is not a desirable situation. Articles edited before they are submitted to a journal considerably reduce such risk.

Cost reduction

When an article is rejected because of linguistic problems and reviewers request it to be revised by a “native speaker”, this is an increase in cost. The prices of foreign companies performing the editing of academic articles are much higher compared to our prices. We have gathered “native speaker” academic editors who are experienced in their own fields within Kalite Akademik Tercume as freelancers. We currently offer translation+editing+proofreading services or an editing-only service.

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